Program on
Information and Warfare

Program Overview:

Information Warfare, Information Operations, Information Assurance, and Operational Resilience

Information is an instrument of national, global, and corporate power. As such, control over its use, its protection, and its manipulation, are national and global security issues. This Research Program examines strategic and tactical offensive and defensive aspects of information operations (IO) by state and non-state actors to achieve political, military, and economic goals through IO means, including computer network operations (CNO), computer network attack (CNA), computer network exploitation (CNE), computer network defence (CND), psychological operations (PSYOPS), perception management, media manipulation, propaganda, strategic influence, and public diplomacy, among others.

K. A. Taipale, founder and executive director of the Center for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology Policy and senior fellow of the World Policy Institute, serves as Program Director. Mr. Taipale has over twenty years of diverse experience relating to information, communications, and technology issues and policy. [bio]

Useful Links:

U.S. Air Force
Cyberspace and Information Operations Study Center:
IO Research and Theory


IWS - The Information Warfare Site

The Information Warfare Monitor

Information Warfare, I-War, IW, C4I, Cyberwar

Federation of American Scientists - IW Resources


The Global Information Society Project Web Site

Center for Advanced Studies in Science & Technology Policy

Center for Advanced Studies Publications

Program on Law Enforcement and National Security in the Information Age []

Program on Telecommunications and Cybersecurity

Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism, and Digital Law Enforcement

Reference material:

National Security Act of 1947 (as amended)

National Security Council Documents:

National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (2006)
National Security Strategy of the United States (2006)
9/11 Five Years Later: Successes and Challenges (2006)

US Department of Defense Documents:

Information Operations Roadmap (DOD 2003) (HTML)
Information Operations (JP 3-13 2006) (JEL)
Joint Doctrine for Electronic Warfare (JP 3-51.1) (2007)
Joint Doctrine for PSYOPS (JP 3-53 2003) (JEL)
Joint Doctrine for Public Affairs (JP 3-61 2005) (JEL) Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs (JP 3-57.1 2003) (JEL)
Joint Doctrine for Military Deception (JP 3-13.4) (2006)
Quadrennial Defense Review (2006) (QDR)

DoD S-3600.1, Information Operations (IO) (1996)
DoD 5240.01 Intelligence Activities (2007)
DoD 5240.1-R, Procedures Governing the Activities of DOD Intelligence Components that Affect U.S. Persons (1982)
DoD 8500.1, Information Assurance (2002)
DoD O-8530.1, Computer Network Defense (CND) (2001)
CJCS 3210.01A, Joint Information Operations Policy (1998)
CJCS 6510.01D, Information Assurance (IA) and Computer Network Defense (CND) (2004)

USAF Policy Doc. 10-7 Information Operations (2006)

POTUS Directives:

Executive Order 12,333
NSDD 77 Public Diplomacy (1983)
PDD 68 International Public Information (1999) (C)
NSPD 16 Guidelines for Offensive Cyber-Warefare (2002) (C)

Congressional Research Service Reports:

Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues, CRS RL31787 (2007)
Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues, CRS RL33123 (2007)

Background Reading:

Winn Schwartau, INFORMATION WARFARE (1996) (ISBN:1560251328).

Dorothy Denning, INFORMATION WARFARE AND SECURITY (Addison-Wesley 1998) (ISBN:0201433036).

John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt, NETWORKS AND NETWARS: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy (RAND 2001) (ISBN:0833030302).

Gregory J. Rattray, STRATEGIC WARFARE IN CYBERSPACE (MIT Press 2001) (ISBN:0262182092).


Leigh Armistead, INFORMATION OPERATIONS (Jt. Forces Staff College and the NSA 2004) (ISBN:1574886991).

Other Useful Links:

National Security Agency - Central Security Service, National Information Assurance Research Laboratory (NIARL)